SAML Single Sign-On

What is SAML?

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an open standard for exchanging authentication and authorization data between an identity provider and a service provider. In this protocol, a service provider is an endpoint which provides a web service to an end user, and an identity provider is in charge of authenticating an end user with information sent by the service provider. Armeria currently provides OpenSAML based armeria-saml module in order to support the integration with an identity provider from a service provider's point of view.

Configuring your server as a service provider

The first step to configure a service provider is adding armeria-saml to your dependencies.

dependencies {
    implementation platform('com.linecorp.armeria:armeria-bom:1.29.0')

    implementation 'com.linecorp.armeria:armeria-saml'

After that, you need to prepare your keystore file which contains a key pair for signing and encryption of a SAML message. Also, you need to import the certificate of your identity provider into the keystore which contains your key pairs. In this example, we are using a free identity provider service hosted by SSOCircle in order to authenticate an end user. The following commands may help you to get a keystore.

# Generate new key pairs as alias 'signing' and 'encryption'.
keytool -genkeypair -keystore sample.jks -storepass 'N5^X[hvG' -keyalg rsa -sigalg sha1withrsa \
  -dname 'CN=Unknown, OU=Unknown, O=Unknown, L=Unknown, ST=Unknown, C=Unknown' -alias signing \
  -deststoretype pkcs12
keytool -genkeypair -keystore sample.jks -storepass 'N5^X[hvG' -keyalg rsa -sigalg sha1withrsa \
  -dname 'CN=Unknown, OU=Unknown, O=Unknown, L=Unknown, ST=Unknown, C=Unknown' -alias encryption \
  -deststoretype pkcs12

# Import a certificate into the keystore as alias '', which is the entity ID
# of the SSOCircle. You can make 'ssocircle.crt' file with the certificate from
# ''.
keytool -importcert -keystore sample.jks -storepass 'N5^X[hvG' -file ssocircle.crt \
  -alias ''

Finally, you need to create your SamlServiceProvider with a SamlServiceProviderBuilder, and attach it to your Server.

// Specify information about your keystore.
// The keystore contains two key pairs, which are identified as 'signing' and 'encryption'.
CredentialResolver credentialResolver =
        new KeyStoreCredentialResolverBuilder(ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader(),
                // You need to specify your key pair and its password here.
                .keyPassword("signing", "N5^X[hvG")
                .keyPassword("encryption", "N5^X[hvG")

SamlServiceProvider ssp =
                           // Specify the entity ID of this service provider.
                           // You can specify what you want.
                           // Specify an authorizer in order to authenticate a request.
                           .authorizer(new Authorizer<HttpRequest>() { ... })
                           // Specify a SAML single sign-on handler
                           // which sends a response to an end user
                           // after he or she is authenticated or not.
                           .ssoHandler(new SamlSingleSignOnHandler() { ... })
                           // Specify the signature algorithm of your key.
                           // Specify the entity ID of the identity provider.
                           // It can be found from the metadata of the identity provider.
                           // Specify the endpoint that is supposed to send an authentication request.

Server server = Server.builder()
                      // Configure TLS with your key and certificate.
                      .tls(new File("your-certificate-file-path"), new File("your-key-file-path"))
                      // Decorate you service with SAML decorator.
                      .annotatedService("/", new MyService(), ssp.newSamlDecorator())
                      // Add SAML service to your server which handles a SAML response and a metadata request.

How to handle the authentication response

armeria-saml provides SamlSingleSignOnHandler to handle the response from an identity provider. It consists of loginSucceeded() and loginFailed() methods which handle the response, and beforeInitiatingSso() which handles a request. In most cases, you only need to write the two methods which handle the response, but if you want to send data to your identity provider and get it back with a response, you need to implement beforeInitiatingSso() method.

The following example shows a simple implementation of the SamlSingleSignOnHandler. In this example, if an authentication is succeeded, an email address is retrieved from the response by referring to a name ID element in the assertion, then it is sent to the end user via Set-Cookie header. It means that your Authorizer can identify an authenticated session with a Cookie header in the following requests, like MyAuthorizer in this example.

class MySamlSingleSignOnHandler implements SamlSingleSignOnHandler {
    public HttpResponse loginSucceeded(ServiceRequestContext ctx, AggregatedHttpRequest req,
                                       MessageContext<Response> message, @Nullable String sessionIndex,
                                       @Nullable String relayState) {
        final Response response = message.getMessage();
        final String username = response.getAssertions().stream()
                                        .map(s -> s.getSubject().getNameID())
                                        .filter(id -> id.getFormat().equals(SamlNameIdFormat.EMAIL.urn()))
        if (username == null) {
            return HttpResponse.of(HttpStatus.UNAUTHORIZED, MediaType.HTML_UTF_8,
                                   "<html><body>Username is not found.</body></html>");

        // Note that you MUST NOT use this example in a real world application. You may consider encoding
        // the value using JSON Web Tokens to prevent tempering.
        final Cookie cookie = Cookie.secureBuilder("username", username)
        return HttpResponse.of(
                                   HttpHeaderNames.CONTENT_TYPE, MediaType.HTML_UTF_8,
                                   HttpHeaderNames.SET_COOKIE, cookie.toSetCookieHeader()),
                HttpData.ofUtf8("<html><body onLoad=\"window.location.href='/welcome'\"></body></html>"));

    public HttpResponse loginFailed(ServiceRequestContext ctx, AggregatedHttpRequest req,
                                    @Nullable MessageContext<Response> message, Throwable cause) {
        return HttpResponse.of(HttpStatus.UNAUTHORIZED, MediaType.HTML_UTF_8,
                               "<html><body>Login failed.</body></html>");

class MyAuthorizer implements Authorizer<HttpRequest> {
    public CompletionStage<Boolean> authorize(ServiceRequestContext ctx, HttpRequest data) {
        // Note that you MUST NOT use this example in a real world application. You have to perform
        // proper validation in your application.
        final String cookie = data.headers().get(HttpHeaderNames.COOKIE);
        if (cookie == null) {
            return UnmodifiableFuture.completedFuture(false);

        final boolean authenticated = Cookie.fromCookieHeader(cookie).stream().anyMatch(
                c -> "username".equals( && !Strings.isNullOrEmpty(c.value()));
        return UnmodifiableFuture.completedFuture(authenticated);

What services are automatically configured

armeria-saml module automatically adds SAML services to your server with the following default paths:

  • /saml/acs/post and /saml/acs/redirect
    • SAML assertion consumer services for HTTP Post binding and HTTP Redirect binding. These services are invoked by an identity provider when it responds to an authentication request received from your service.
  • /saml/slo/post and /saml/slo/redirect
    • SAML single logout services for HTTP Post binding and HTTP Redirect binding. These services may be invoked by an identity provider when it performs global logout.
  • /saml/metadata
    • SAML metadata service. In the metadata, the endpoints for assertion consumer services and single logout services are specified by md:AssertionConsumerService and md:SingleLogoutService elements respectively. The certificates of the signing and encryption key pair are also included.